The Albatross and Petrel Agreement aims to improve the protection of listed species both on land and at sea. The development and proclamation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) or their equivalents surrounding localities where ACAP-listed species breed are thus important steps in improving the conservation status of threatened albatrosses and petrels.
Here follows brief details of relevant MPAs, including no-fishing zones, proclaimed or proposed by both ACAP Parties and non-Parties. Click on the links to learn more.
Send details of missing MPAs in existence or planned (preferably with links to web sites) to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument
Heard and McDonald Island Marine Reserve
Includes all territorial waters (0-12 nautical miles) and parts of the EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone; 12-200 nm).
Australian Antarctic Division 2005. Heard Island and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan. Kingston: Australian Antarctic Division. 198 pp. ISBN 1 876 93408 5. http://www.heardisland.aq/protection/management_plan/index.html.
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve
Includes Tasmanian State waters out to three nautical miles.
Frost, Leslie 2006. Macquarie Island Nature Reserve and World Heritage Area Management Plan 2006. Hobart: Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Tourism, Arts and the Environment. 176 pp. + 15 maps. ISBN 0 72 4660405 X. http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=6182 and http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/file.aspx?id=6609.
Macquarie Island Marine Park
Includes parts of the EEZ (3-200 nm) surrounding the island
Commonwealth of Australia 2001. Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan, 2008. Canberra: Australia. 60 pp. 642547610.
Note that the Macquarie Island Commonwealth Marine Reserve Management Plan expired on 25 September 2008. Interim management arrangements will apply until a new management plan has been put in place: see http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/mpa/macquarie/management.html.
Macquarie Island and its territorial waters out to 12 nautical miles are a World Heritage Site, proclaimed in 1997 (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/629 and http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/macquari.html).
Galapagos Marine Reserve
A 15-40-nautical mile marine reserve (c. 140 000 km²) surrounds the archipelago, including Isla Espanola, breeding locality of the Waved Albatross Phoebastria irrorata. The marine reserve, created in 1998, forms part of a World Heritage Natural Site. See: http://www.darwinadventure.com/galapagos-marine-reserve.htm and http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1.
In September 2008 France designated a very large Ramsar Wetland Site of International Importance (2 270 000 ha) that includes marine components ("rocky shores, estuaries and fjords") at its islands in the southern Indian Ocean (Amsterdam, Saint Paul, Crozets and Kerguelen). http://www.ramsar.org/profile/profiles_france.htm.
Ogasawara Marine Park
Proclaimed in 1972 with an area of 4630 km². Both Black-footed P. immutabilis and Laysan P. nigripes Albatrosses breed within the island group. http://sea.unep-wcmc.org/sites/pa/1322v.htm.
Reserva de la Biosfera Archipiélago de Revillagigedo
Designated a Ramsar Wetland Site of International Importance in 2004 with an area of 636 685 ha. Two islands, Clarión and San Benedicto, support small populations of Black-footed and Laysan Albatrosses. The Ramsar site includes surrounding inshore waters.
Auckland Islands Marine Reserve
Includes territorial waters around the island group out to 12 nautical miles totalling 484 400 ha. Declared January 2003. See http://www.doc.govt.nz/templates/podcover.aspx?id=33835.
Griffith, Gary 2002. Auckland Islands Marine Reserve application. An application by the Director-General of Conservation. Invercargill: Department of Conservation. 55 pp. ISBN 0-478-22249-1.
Moutere Mahue/Antipodes Island Marine Reserve, Moutere Hauriri/Bounty Islands Marine Reserve and the Moutere Ihupuku/Campbell Island Marine Reserve) around New Zealand's sub-Antarctic islands are to be created under the Subantarctic Islands Marine Reserves Bill. See also:
Department of Conservation 2006. Marine Protection for New Zealand Subantarctic islands. A Background Resource Document & CD ROM. Wellington: Department of Conservation. 48 pp. ISBN 0-478-14092-4.
Antipodes, Auckland, Bounty, Campbell and Snares Island Groups
The New Zealand sub-Antarctic island groups and their 0-12-nm territorial waters form a single World Heritage Site, proclaimed in 1998 (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/877 and http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/subantar.htm).
Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve
The Prince Edward Islands are a Ramsar Wetland Site of International Importance with boundaries extending 500 m seawards, designated on 22 May 2007. See: http://www.ramsar.org/profile/profiles_southafrica.htm. Currently no commercial fishing is allowed within territorial waters (0-12 nm) around the islands.
Prince Edward Islands Marine Protected Area
South Africa declared a large (180 000-km² ) MPA around its Prince Edward Islands in April 2013 that includes all of the group's territorial waters (0-12 nm) as a Sanctuary Area where fishing will not be allowed and parts of the Economic Exclusive Zone out to 200 nm as either Restricted (research fishing) or Controlled (commercial fishing) Areas.
Nel, Deon & Omardien, Aaniyah (Eds) 2008. Towards the development of a Marine Protected Area at the Prince Edward Islands. WWF South Africa Report Series - 2008/Marine/001. 180 pp.
Gough Island Nature Reserve and Inaccessible Island Nature Reserve
Gough and Inaccessible Islands, part of the UK's Overseas Territory of Tristan da Cunha, are both proclaimed nature reserves, were designated Ramsar Wetland Sites of International Importance on 20 November 2008 and together form a single World Heritage Site, proclaimed for Gough in 1995 (http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/gough.html) and extended to include Inaccessible in 2004 (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/740). In each case, the proclaimed/designated boundaries extend out to 12 nautical miles (territorial waters), making them de facto MPAs (Brooke 2007).
Cooper, J. & Ryan, P.G. 1994. Management Plan for the Gough Island Wildlife Reserve. Edinburgh, Tristan da Cunha: Government of Tristan da Cunha. 96 pp. ISBN 0 9 03359 38 3.
RSPB & Tristan Conservation Department 2010. Gough and Inaccessible Islands World Heritage Site Management Plan April 2010 – March 2015. [Sandy: Royal Society for the Protection of Birds & Edinburgh, Tristan da Cunha: Tristan da Cunha Government]. 32 pp. [+ appendices]. http://www.rspb.org.uk/Images/Gough_Inaccessible_MP_tcm9-273306.pdf
Ryan, P.G. & Glass, J.P. 2001. Inaccessible Island Nature Reserve Management Plan. Edinburgh, Tristan da Cunha: Government of Tristan da Cunha. 65 pp. http://www.ukotcf.org/pdf/InaccMP02.pdf.
Brooke, M. 2007. Marine Protected Areas in territorial and EEZ waters of UK Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies: useful tools in the box? In: Pienkowski, M. (Ed.). Biodiversity that Matters: a conference on conservation on UK Overseas Territories and other small island communities, Jersey 6th to 12th October 2006. UK Overseas Territories Conservation Forum. pp. 134-137. http://www.ukotcf.org/pdf/JerseyConf/topic4c.pdf.
United States of America
Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument
Proclaimed in January 2009, the monument includes Wake Atoll (where both Laysan and Black-footed Albatrosses have bred in the recent past in small numbers) and its surrounding seas out to 50 nautical miles.
Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument
Proclaimed in June 2006 as the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument and renamed as the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in 2007, the monument includes eight atolls/islands which support large breeding populations of Black-footed and Laysan Albatrosses. These are Kure, Midway. Pearl and Hermes Reef, Lisianski, Laysan, French Frigate Shoals, Necker and Nihoa. Seas out to 50 nm around each island are included within the monument. See: http://www.hawaiireef.noaa.gov/management/mp.html.
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)*
Sea Lion Island
A 1000-ha island designated as a Ramsar Wetland Site of International Importance in 2001. Southern Giant Petrels Macronectes giganteus breed in small numbers. The wetland site includes a marine component ("surrounding waters"). given as 10% of the total area. See: http://ramsar.wetlands.org/Database/Searchforsites/tabid/765/language/en-US/Default.aspx and http://www.ramsar.org/profile/profiles_uk.htm.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (Islas Georgia del Sur y Islas Sandwich del Sur)*
[South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands] 2012. South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Marine Protected Areas: Existing Protection and Proposals for Further Protection. Consultation Document. [Stanley, Falkland Islands: Government of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. 15 pp. http://www.sgisland.gs/download/MPA/SGSSI%20MPA%20Consultation%20Oct%202012.pdf.
*A dispute exists between the Governments of Argentina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (Islas Georgias del Sur y Islas Sandwich del Sur) and the surrounding maritime areas.
Under update 04 October 2020