Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels

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Wedge-tailed Shearwaters feeding small chicks in the Seychelles forage over an upwelling bank

Jacopo Cecere (Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy) and colleagues write in the journal Waterbirds on foraging grounds of Wedge-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus pacificus in the Seychelles.

The paper’s abstract follows:

“Seabird movements during foraging trips and their preference for particular areas have recently been the focus of many studies aimed at gaining a better understanding of the ecological requirements of several species.  During the last decade, the use of new devices, such as Global Positioning System (GPS) devices and geo-locator loggers, has allowed researchers to perform more investigations of this type.  GPS devices were used on Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus) breeding on Aride Island, Seychelles, to identify the main foraging areas used during early chick-rearing and to assess at-sea foraging habitat selection.  Thirteen foraging trips were recorded, 61.5% of which lasted 1 day.  One main foraging area, located approximately 100 km east of the colony just outside a granitic bank characterized by upwelling and higher values of primary production compared to surrounding areas, was identified.  The foraging area size (3,313 km2) was much smaller than that identified during late chick-rearing (160,000 km2) in a previous study.  This is probably due to the exigency to feed chicks more regularly and hence to find foraging areas closer to the colony during the early chick-rearing.  The identification of key marine conservation areas, like those identified in this study, is a priority for designating marine Important Bird Areas and identifying habitat management measures.  The results of this study should be relevant for the development of conservation plans for Wedge-tailed Shearwaters and for other seabirds in the area.”

Wedge-tailed Shearwater in the Seychelles, photograph by Alan Burger

Reference:

Cecere, J.G., Calabrese, L. Rocamora, G. & Catoni, C. 2013.  Movement patterns and habitat selection of Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus) breeding at Aride Island, Seychelles.  Waterbirds 36:c432-437. doi: .

John Cooper, ACAP Information Officer, 06 February 2014

Book review: Albatroz um Projeto pela Vida (Albatross a Project for Life) by Tatiana Neves

Neves, T. 2013.  Albatroz um Projeto pela Vida.  São Paulo: DBA Dórea Books and Art.  132 pp.  Hard cover with dust jacket and in full colour.  ISBN 978-857234475-3.  www.dbaeditora.com.br

Tatiana Neves, General Co-ordinator (Coordenação Geral) of Projeto Albatroz (the Albatross Project) in Brazil has written a captivating coffee-table book in Portuguese (English translation: ‘Albatross a Project for Life’) packed with striking double-page images showing off these magnificent birds, both albatrosses and petrels, on land and at sea, coupled with images of the people with whom they share the oceans and fate.  Although the imagery is biased towards the Black-browed Albatross Thalassarche melanophris, the most commonly encountered albatross species off the Brazilian coast, other species are also beautifully depicted.

Albatroz um Projeto pela Vida by Tatiana Neves

The book is divided into four main chapters.  Although each chapter is presented in the same way their subsequent layouts vary significantly in style and length, with the second chapter making up close to half the book.  The initial pages contain the dedication, prefaces and a table of contents. The Acknowledgements are to be found at the back of the book together with a list of all recognized albatross species, highlighting those that occur in Brazilian waters. The main petrel species occurring in Brazil are also listed highlighting the ones that interact with fishing operations. A list of photographic credits and publishing information end the book.

The title cleverly introduces both the main subject of the author, the trajectory of the civil society organization Projeto Albatroz and the author’s own passion and engagement in this life’s project.  It is almost devoid of technical language making for very accessible reading.  The first chapter translates as the ‘Route of the Albatross’ and takes the reader along a time line of vignettes summarizing key turning points in the history of the organization from the early days and events that inspired its creation in 1990 to 2012 when it became part of Rede Biomar, a network of marine conservation organizations sponsored by Petrobras, the Brazilian state petrochemical giant.

The second chapter is not only the longest but also of most relevance to the Albatross and Petrel Agreement.  The first half sets the scene with descriptions of the general biology of albatrosses, their behavioural traits, such as the migratory routes that bring the birds to the Brazilian coast and their adaptations to a life at sea and on land.  All 22 albatross species are briefly mentioned along with the location of their main colonies.  Next the author deals with the main problems facing albatrosses and petrels in general, but particularly in Brazilian waters. The main focus is on longline fishing and on a description of how this and other fishing practices common to Brazil pose a threat to the birds.  Poignant photography of a Black-browed Albatross attempting to dislodge bait from a longline hook brings the message home. The chapter then flows seamlessly into a brief account of the inception of the organization before moving onto the main work done by Projeto Albatroz.  This centres on how the work of adapting bird-scaring lines to Brazilian needs was achieved by working closely with fishers, and how this collaboration is at the core of the organization’s success. The chapter ends with a brief mention of milestones and of its recognition at national and more recently at international level.  The chapter, although long, is to the point and kept alive through vivid and relevant photography engaging the reader through a thematic which could otherwise be technical and boring.

The last two chapters move away from a direct focus on the birds and deal with the education and outreach arm of Projeto Albatroz.  They include various boxes with testimonies from fishers, on-board observers, members of the public and authorities.  The book ends by briefly summarizing the work of the other four marine conservation organizations that form part of Rede Biomar.

I found the inconsistent presentation and layout styles between the chapters to be one of the few jarring notes. The slightly unconventional arrangement of preface texts scattered between other technical pages at the front of the book was a bit of a distraction, but the pleasing images quickly overcame that.  The decision to first detail the Projeto Albatroz timeline (perhaps the most technical aspect of the book) in Chapter 1 before introducing readers to albatrosses and their plight in Chapter 2 is surprising, and although I found it engaging I suspect readers less familiar with albatross conservation may benefit from a different sequence.

In summary the book uses stunning imagery to full effect to draw readers in. This combines with readable and engaging prose to fulfil the objectives of inspiring and educating the layperson about the life and plight of these amazing birds.  Furthermore, by tracking the progress and history of the organization Projeto Albatroz it informs us about the enormous efforts and on-going work that goes into their protection.

The book stands as a testament and example of what can be achieved through the tenacity, passion and humility of someone such as Tatiana Neves who has attended many ACAP meetings as part of the Brazilian Delegation and is currently serving as Vice-convenor of ACAP’s Seabird Bycatch Working Group.  At every turn she writes of the collective effort that has gone into achieving each of the milestones.  Although it is written mainly about the Brazilian situation and as such is in Portuguese, the lessons and messages are universal to other nations facing similar conservation issues, and it would be of great value to see it translated into the three official ACAP languages of English, French and Spanish.

Andrea Angel holds Tatiana Neves' book

Photographs by John Cooper

Andrea Angel, Cape Town, South Africa, 05 February 2014

ACAP Breeding Site No. 62. San Benedicto Island, Mexico, has a small, growing population of Laysan Albatrosses

Isla San Benedicto is located 370 km south of the tip of Baja California and is one of three main islands in the Mexican Islas Revillagigedos Archipelago. The Reserva de la Biosfera Archipiélago de Revillagigedo (established in 1994) was designated as a Ramsar Wetland Site of International Importance in 2004 and is on Mexico's World Heritage Tentative List, as well as being an Endemic Bird Area.

Bárcena Crater (in the background), which erupted and formed in 1952-53; the photo was taken from Herrera Crater where Masked Boobies breed, March 1988

Isla San Benedicto is a small (6.4 x 3.2 km) uninhabited volcanic island with an elevation of 332 m.  In August 1952 the island erupted and destroyed all of the plant life, along with the only two species of breeding landbirds, and most of the breeding seabirds.  Over time, the seabirds and some of the vegetation have returned to the island.  Currently, the southern half of the island is still largely covered with ash and free of vegetation; the northern half, which supports most of the breeding seabirds, has dense patches of bunch grass Eragrostis diversifolia but little other vegetation.

The north end of San Benedicto Island where most of the seabirds (including albatrosses) breed and nearly all of the vegetation occurs; breeding Masked Boobies are visible, December 1999

From the north rim of Bárcena Crater across Herrera Crater toward the north end of the island showing the sparse dry vegetation, December 1999

The Near Threatened and ACAP-listed Laysan Albatross Phoebastria immutabilis first began scouting for breeding colonies in the eastern Pacific in the mid-1970s, and the first nests were reported (at Guadalupe Island, Mexico) during the 1983/84 winter nesting season. We first observed Laysans roosting on San Benedicto in May 1987, and found the first nest there when we returned in November 1990 – it is likely, therefore, that nesting began sometime in the late 1980s.  The colony appears to be growing slowly, from one pair in 1990, two to five pairs in April 1992, eight in December 1999, 12 in December 2000, and 17 in December 2003.  Unlike Guadalupe Island, we have not seen any banded birds on San Benedicto.

A Laysan Albatross with a recently laid egg on San Benedicto Island, Mexico, 3 December 1999

The Near Threatened and ACAP-listed Black-footed Albatross P. nigripes was first observed on the island in December 1999 when a single individual was seen roosting with three Laysan Albatrosses.  In December 2000 we found a single bird on an egg (although its mate was not present), but in December 2003 we did not find this species on the island, including at the former nest site.  Its current status on San Benedicto is unknown.

The Critically Endangered Townsend’s Shearwater Puffinus auricularis has not been reported breeding on the island since the 1952 eruption.  However, Wedge-tailed Shearwaters P. pacificus have been recorded breeding with an estimate of 1000 pairs.

Although the seabird populations on San Benedicto are all small-to-moderate in size, it does support perhaps the most diverse population of breeding pelecaniforms of any island in the World, including four species of sulids (Masked, Nazca, Brown and Red-footed Boobies; Sula dactylatra, S. granti, S. leucogaster and S. sula, respectively), two frigatebirds (Great Fregata minor and Magnificent F. magnificens), and probably two species of tropicbirds (Red-billed Phaethon aethereus and Red-tailed P. rubricauta).

It is difficult to get ashore on San Benedicto and currently there are no introduced animals on the island; bird populations there appear to be relatively safe for the time being.

Laysan Albatrosses also breed on Clarion Island in the archipelago (click here).

Photographs by Bob Pitman.

Selected References:

Brattstrom, B.H. 1963.  Bárcena Volcano, 1952: its effect on the fauna and flora of San Benedicto Island, Mexico.  In: Grissett, J.L. (Ed.).  Pacific Basin Biogeography.  Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.  pp. 499-524.

Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas 2004.  Programa de Conservación y Manejo Reserva de La Biosfera Archipiélago de Revillagigedo.  Tlalpan: Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas.  220 p.

Howell, S.N.G. & Webb, S. 1990. The seabirds of Las Islas Revillagigedos, Mexico.  Wilson Bulletin 102: 140-146.

Pitman, R.L. & Balance, L.T. 2002.  The changing status of marine birds breeding at San Benedicto Island, Mexico.  Wilson Bulletin 114:11-19.

Pitman, R.L., Walker, W.A., Everett, W.T. & Gallo-Reynoso, J.P. 2004.  Population status, foods and foraging of Laysan Albatrosses Phoebastria immutabilis, nesting on Guadalupe Island, Mexico.  Marine Ornithology.

Bob Pitman, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, La Jolla, California, USA & John Cooper, ACAP Information Officer, 04 February 2013

ACAP Breeding Site No. 61. Rocas Alijos, Mexico support a tiny, recently-established population of Laysan Albatrosses

Rocas Alijos (Alijos Rocks) are located 320 km west of Baja California, Mexico. They consist of three volcanic rocky spires: North (29 m high), Middle (18 m) and South (35 m) Rocks along with numerous smaller low-lying rocks that are often awash.

Rocas Alijos

 South Rock, North Rock and Middle Rock from left to right

Laysan Albatrosses regularly roost and are presumed to breed on both South and North Rocks

The total exposed surface area on the two rocks (North and South) where Laysan Albatrosses Phoebastria immutabilis are thought to breed is only a hundred square metres or so.  There is a small amount of loose soil on top of South Rock, but no terrestrial plants or breeding land birds have been observed.  South and Middle Rocks were climbed for the first time in 1990; it appears that a landing has not been made on North Rock.

South Rock is severely undermined with daylight visible through the base at all angles.  Three Laysan Albatrosses are just visible at its top

Laysan Albatrosses were first recorded at Rocas Alijos in February 1976 when 10 were present; birds were first observed displaying on the water in 1983, and in January 1988 there were 16-18 present when single birds were first observed landing on two of the rocks.  Twelve were seen near the rocks in February 1993 and in December 1999 from a helicopter I observed one Laysan roosting on South Rock (Roca Sur) and five on North Rock – one on the latter appeared to be incubating as it stayed in the same position for at least three hours.

A Laysan Albatross swims in the roiling foam among the rocks at Rocas Alijos

An apparently incubating Laysan Albatross is discernable on North Rock in the aerial photo's centre in December 1999

In December 2003, I counted 28 Laysan Albatrosses associated with the rocks. This is the highest count for the locality and the birds seemed to be either already breeding on North and South Rocks or just preparing to as birds were displaying on the water with three to four pairs considered to be breeding at the time.  Laysan Albatrosses occur seasonally at Rocas Alijos: none was seen during visits to the rocks in August 2006 and October 1993.

In addition to Laysan Albatrosses, a single Black-footed Albatross P. nigripes was observed around a boat at Rocas Alijos for two days in February 1993, and a minimum of three were flying between the rocks in December 1999.

Several other seabirds are known to breed on Rocas Alijos, including Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus (strongly suspected), both Masked Sula dactylatra and Nazca S. granti Boobies, an as-yet unidentified frigatebird Fregata sp., Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscata and an unidentified storm petrel Oceanodroma sp.

See ACAP Breeding Site accounts for the Mexican islands supporting breeding Laysan Albatrosses of Clarion, Revillagigedo Archipelago and Guadalupe.

All photographs by R.L. Pitman.

Selected References:

Everett, W.T. & Pitman, R.L. 1996.  Avian specimens from Rocas Alijos.  In: Schmieder, R.W. (Ed.).  Rocas Alijos.  Scientific Results from the Cordell Expeditions.  Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.  pp. 359-362.

Howell, S.N.G. & Webb, S.W. 1992. Changing status of the Laysan Albatross in Mexico.  American Birds Summer 1992: 220-223.

Pitman, R.L. 1985.  The marine birds of Alijos Rocks, Mexico.  Western Birds 16: 81-92.

Pitman, R.L., Walker, W.A., Everett, W.T. & Gallo-Reynoso, J.P. 2004.  Population status, foods and foraging of Laysan Albatrosses Phoebastria immutabilis nesting on Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Marine Ornithology.

Senf, E. & Wicksten, M.K. 1996.  Birds observed at Rocas Alijos.  In: Schmieder, R.W. (Ed.).  Rocas Alijos.  Scientific Results from the Cordell Expeditions.  Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.  pp. 355-357.

Bob Pitman, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, La Jolla, California, USA, 03 February 2013

Feeling bugged out? Caterpillars like nests of the Wandering Albatross

Tanya Haupt (Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, South Africa) and colleagues write in the journal Polar Biology on why Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans nests contain so many moth caterpillars.

The papers’ abstract follows:

“On the South Indian Ocean Province Islands of the sub-Antarctic, most nutrients are processed through a detritus-based food web.  On Marion Island, larvae of the moth Pringleophaga marioni are one of the key decomposers. Abundance of these caterpillars is higher in newly abandoned Wandering Albatross (Diomedea exulans) nests than other habitats, and this observation has been explained by hypotheses regarding the thermal and nutrient advantages of nests.  These hypotheses require a mechanism for increasing the abundance of caterpillars, since nests are an ephemeral resource, and here, we determine whether caterpillars respond to chemosensory and thermal cues using a laboratory choice chamber approach.  Caterpillars show no significant preference for newly abandoned nest material over no other choice, old nest material, and the common mire moss Sanionia uncinata.  Caterpillars that are acclimated to warm (15°C) conditions do prefer lower (5°C) to higher (15°C) temperatures, perhaps reflecting negative effects of prolonged exposure to warm temperatures on growth.  Caterpillars also show significant avoidance of conspecifics, possibly because of incidental cannibalism previously reported in this species.  Thus, we find no empirical support for nest-finding ability in caterpillars based on chemosensory or thermal cues.  It is possible that adult females or very early instar caterpillars show such ability, or high caterpillar density and biomass in nests are an incidental consequence of better conditions in the nests or deposition by the birds during nest construction.”

 

A Wanding Albatross chick on its nest at Marion Island

Photograph by John Cooper

Reference:

Haupt, T. Sinclair, B.J. & Chown, S.L. 2014.  Chemosensory and thermal cue responses in the sub-Antarctic moth Pringleophaga marioni: do caterpillars choose Wandering Albatross nest proxies?  Polar Biology DOI 10.1007/s00300-014-1457-2.

John Cooper, ACAP Information Officer, 02 February 2014

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